Nutritional needs in cold and high altitude environments.

Summary: Humans tend to rely on behavioral thermoregulation to protect themselves against the cold. That is, they wear clothing, remain in shelters, and use various heat-generating devices. However, when behavioral strategies are inadequate to defend body temperature homeostasis, physiological responses are elicited. Besides protecting against cold effects and playing a role in the etiology of cold injuries, these physiological responses may alter the metabolism of persons living and working in cold climates. This chapter reviews the human physiological responses elicited by cold exposure and then considers some factors accounting for differences in response among individuals.

Reference: Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research; Marriott BM, Carlson SJ, editors. Nutritional Needs In Cold And In High-Altitude Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1996. 7, Physiology of Cold Exposure. Available from:

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